science my-favorite

Thinking, Fast and Slow

Group Index About Positive About Negative Example Biases
1 Too much information, so we aggressively filter. We don’t see everything. Some of the information we filter out is actually useful and important. e.g., Availability heuristic, Attentional bias, Illusory truth effect, Mere exposure effect, Context effect, Cue-dependent forgetting, Mood-congruent memory bias, Frequency illusion, Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon, Empathy gap; Bizarreness effect, Humor effect, Von Restorff effect, Negativity bias, Publication bias, Omission bias; Anchoring, Contrast effect, Focusing effect, Framing effect, Weber–Fechner law, Distinction bias; Confirmation bias, Congruence bias, Post-purchase rationalization, Choice-supportive bias, Selective perception, … Bias blind spot, …
2 Lack of meaning is confusing, so we fill in the gaps. Signal becomes a story. We sometimes imagine details that were filled in by our assumptions, and construct meaning and stories that aren’t really there. e.g., Halo effect, In-group bias, Out-group homogeneity bias, Cross-race effect, Stereotyping, Just-world hypothesis, Argument from fallacy, Authority bias, Automation bias, Curse of knowledge, Illusion of transparency, Spotlight effect, Streetlight effect, Illusion of external agency, Illusion of asymmetric insight, Extrinsic incentive error, Impact bias, Pessimism bias, Planning fallacy, Time-saving bias, Pro-innovation bias, Projection bias, Restraint bias, Self-consistency bias…
3 Need to act fast otherwise we lose our chance, so we jump to conclusions. Stories become decisions. Some of the quick reactions and decisions we jump to are unfair, self-serving, and counter-productive. e.g., Sunk cost fallacy, Irrational escalation, System justification, Reactance, Reverse psychology, Decoy effect, Social comparison bias, Ambiguity bias, Information bias, Belief bias, Rhyme as reason effect, …
4 To keep doing all above as efficiently as possible, our brains need to remember the most important and useful bits of new information and inform the other systems so they can adapt and improve over time, but no more than that. Our memory reinforces errors. Some of the stuff we remember for later just makes all of the above systems more biased, and more damaging to our thought processes. e.g, Peak–end rule, Misattribution of memory, Source confusion, Cryptomnesia, False memory, Suggestibility, Spacing effect, Implicit associations, Implicit stereotypes, Stereotypical bias, Prejudice, Fading affect bias, Picture superiority effect, Levels of processing effect, Testing effect, Absent-mindedness, Next-in-line effect, Tip of the tongue phenomenon, Google effect, Self-relevance effect, …
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