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    1. Two different kinds of progress. Horizontal progress occurs from copying things that work. Vertical progress is achieved by doing something wholly new.
    1. The history of 1990, the dotcom mania made the current new culture: rather than investing in long-term plans, companies need to be lean, able to respond to changing circumstances.
    1. Monopoly where there is absolutely no competition. / Competitive businesses have tight profit margins, while monopolies can afford to think about things besides the bottom line. (Monopolies are better for profit.)
    1. “Innovative monopolies generate profits and create new products that benefit society. Competition limits innovation and profits.” / A unique opportunity that others don’t see?
    1. “Companies with technology that offer xx much better than the nearest competitor are well positioned to become monopolies.” / “To start small and monopolize. Once you have found your niche, scale up.” / “strategy is important; have to consider the end in order to succeed.”
    1. “Most of the western world was definite optimism from the 17th century until 1970s or so, optimism with a plan” / we live in indefinite optimistic, optimism without a plan; indefinite optimism isn’t sustainable.
    1. 80–20 rule, power law is the backbone of venture capitalism and many other things in human society / much better to focus on something with rapid growth or invest company that has rapid growth.
    1. Starting with the right co-founder, the right team / some amount of organization is critical. / Small boards / Avoid outsourcing. / Keep the CEO lean and hungry. / stock options are preferable to bonuses. / Beginnings are periods of flexibility and are characterized by openness , a culture that encourages innovation. /
    1. Keep your group tight. / Roles should be well-defined. / To draw talented employees tell them why your team is unique and important. want want really dedicated and loyal employees / founders shouldn’t take the power and the glory too seriously.
    1. need to have a strong distribution plan in order to succeed. / Excellent sales and distribution can create a monopoly even if the product itself isn’t much different / Will your market position be defensible 10 and 20 years into the future?